History of the Universe eBook. 398 pages, 300 illustrations only $2.99
To summarize, when needs to make a it copies one half of a gene to make the message. The message is then used by a to make the . The amazing thing is that it is proteins which control the unzipping and copying of genes. So life is a complex interaction of and proteins.
Note that the process described above is not the whole story. Genes can be turned on when their product is required, then turned off. In addition the transcription of mRNA into protein can be changed and controlled. The system which turns them on and off is made of enzymes, and faults in this system can cause diseases such as cancer. The system is called epigenetics.
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