NASA – Two New NASA LRO Videos: See Moon’s Evolution and Take a Tour of Moon

NASA has released two videos. One takes viewers through the moon’s evolutionary history, and reveals how it came to appear the way it does today.

The other gives viewers a guided tour of prominent locations on the moon’s surface, compiled by the spacecraft’s observations of the moon.

via NASA – Two New NASA LRO Videos: See Moon’s Evolution, Take a Tour.

Earth Began Recycling Crust 3 Billion Years Ago

The researchers found that in the first 1.5 billion years or so of the Earth’s history, the average net rate at which new continental crust formed remained high, at about 0.7 cubic miles (3 cubic kilometers) annually, enough to establish about 65 percent of the present-day volume of the crust by 3 billion years ago. However, after that, average net new crust growth slowed greatly to about a third of its prior rate as the proportion of crust that formed after being recycled through the mantle rose sharply.

via Earth Began Recycling Crust 3 Billion Years Ago | When Plate Tectonics Started |

The features of the newly discovered Megavirus implies that it originated from a cell which lost the ability to reproduce

Megavirus chilensis is a giant virus isolated off the coast of Chile in 2010. It probably contains enough genes to encode over 1000 proteins, more than most bacteria. It seems to have originated either from a eukaryotic cell or from its near-ancestor, by losing the ability to reproduce.

The origin and evolution of word order

Archeological evidence points to the sudden appearance of strikingly modern behaviour in humans around 50,000 years ago in the form of sophisticated tools and art like painting, sculpture and engravings. A possible reason for this could be the development of a fully modern human language, the proto-language that eventually gave rise to all the current languages. What can we conclude about the nature of this language?

Consider the word order of a sentence such as “the man killed the bear”. The man is the subject (S), killed is the verb (V) and the bear is the object (O) so the ordering of the sentence is SVO (subject, verb, and object).

Nobel-prize winning physicist Murray Gell-Mann from the Santa Fe Institute and linguist Merritt Ruhlen from Stanford University have analysed the distribution of word-orders in a sample of 2,135 languages, classified into seven major families. They conclude that five of them were originally SOV, one must have been either SOV or SVO, and another was SVO.

This strongly favours the proto-language being SOV (so the sentence would have been: the man the bear killed). The existing SOV languages, such as Danish, have apparently not changed their structure since their origin. Most modern languages have, however, adopted the possibly more logical SVO word order.

The origin and evolution of word order. The full text costs.

Supporting information free

Short History of the World – Online games for free

This on-line game lets you free a mammoth from the ice, create fire and invent the wheel, all with a time limit. Needless to say I was too slow to achieve anything!

Short History of the World – Online games for free

Seriously though, I’m sure that games are a great way to learn and would love to have time to develop a history of the universe game, but I know I never will.

Completing Time Crystal is about as much as I can ever hope to do, but it could easily form the kernel of a game.

French still confused over GM maize

Reuters reports that the French government is likely to renew its ban on GM maize despite its highest court ordering the ban illegal. The government claims that MON810 is a risk to the environment. Monsanto, which manufactures the seed, will withdraw the seed from the French market despite its claim that it is perfectly safe.

France to restore GMO maize ban within days: ministry | Reuters.

More evidence that the Higgs boson exists

There are increasing signs that the Higgs boson exists with a mass of between 115 and 135 GeV and that it decays into two bottom quarks.

At a conference in La Thuile, in Italy, both the ATLAS and CMS experiments from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, and CDF and D0 from the Tevatron presented their updated results in their search for the Higgs boson, a hypothetical particle that physicists have been trying to find for nearly five decades.

Further details: Quantum Diaries

The Geological Record of Ocean Acidification

Ocean acidification may have severe consequences for marine ecosystems; however, assessing its future impact is difficult because laboratory experiments and field observations are limited by their reduced ecologic complexity and sample period, respectively. In contrast, the geological record contains long-term evidence for a variety of global environmental perturbations, including ocean acidification plus their associated biotic responses. We review events exhibiting evidence for elevated atmospheric CO2, global warming, and ocean acidification over the past ~300 million years of Earth’s history, some with contemporaneous extinction or evolutionary turnover among marine calcifiers. Although similarities exist, no past event perfectly parallels future projections in terms of disrupting the balance of ocean carbonate chemistry—a consequence of the unprecedented rapidity of CO2 release currently taking place.

via The Geological Record of Ocean Acidification.

David Christian

David Christian is a professor at Macquarie University, Australia where he teaches big history courses and is beginning the process of setting up a Big History Institute. He coined the term “Big History” which is

the attempt to understand, in a unified, interdisciplinary way, the history of the Cosmos, Earth, Life, and Humanity,

which is exactly the same aim as this history of the universe website.

Below we show David on TED, where presents the history of the universe in 18 minutes.


David Christian of Macquaire University, Australia, has won the support of Bill Gates and Microsoft to support development of ChronoZoom, whose goal is:

to make time relationships between different studies of history clear and vivid. In the process, it provides a framework for exploring related electronic resources. It thus serves as a “master timeline” tying together all kinds of specialized timelines and electronic resources, and aspires to bridge the gap between the humanities and the sciences and to bring together and unify all knowledge of the past.

For more information about ChronoZoom visit

For a blog about Microsoft’s plans for the project click here

And here’s a video about ChronoZoom